Formaldehyde

Hóa chất Formaldehyde dùng trong công nghiệp ảnh hưởng như thế nào đến sức khỏe con người? Ván sàn kỹ thuật cao Trường Thành có sử dụng Formaldehyde không?

Formaldehyde là hợp chất hữu cơ có rất nhiều tên gọi khác nhau như formol, methyl aldehyde, methylene oxide, metanal, là andehyde đơn giản nhất… Công thức hóa học là HCHO, là hợp chất hữu cơ dễ bay hơi và có khả năng chuyển sang thể khí ở điều kiện bình thường, không màu, mùi cay xốc, khó ngửi, tan nhiều trong nước (nếu dung dịch này có khoảng 40% theo thể tích hoặc 37% theo khối lượng gọi là formon hay formalin). Fomandehyde lần đầu tiên được nhà hóa học người Nga Aleksandr Butlerov tổng hợp năm 1859 nhưng chỉ được Hoffman xác định chắc chắn vào năm 1867.

Trong tự nhiên, formaldehyde có sẵn trong gỗ, táo, cà chua, khói động cơ, khói thuốc lá, khói đốt gỗ, dầu và khí hóa lỏng (gaz)… Ngoài ra, formaldehyde còn hiện diện trong các sản phẩm đã qua chế biến như sơn và dầu bóng, gỗ ép, keo, vải, chất chống cháy, các chất bảo quản và chất cách ly…

Các hiệu ứng sức khỏe

Tổ chức Y tế Thế giới liệt kê formaldehyde vào loại hóa chất độc hại đối với sức khỏe con người. Cơ thể con người nếu tiếp xúc với formaldehyde trong thời gian dài thì dù hàm lượng cao hay thấp cũng gây ra nhiều tác hại nghiêm trọng cho da và hệ thống hô hấp, các bệnh về bạch  cầu, gây ung thư nhiều cơ quan trong cơ thể, đặc biệt là ung thư đường hô hấp như mũi, họng, phổi,…Formaldehyde là tác nhân gây ra sai lệch và biến dị các nhiễm sắc thể, phụ nữ có thai bị nhiễm có thể bị ảnh hưởng đến sự phát triển của bào thai.

Formaldehyde là một chất có tiềm năng gây ung thư đã được tranh luận từ những năm 1980. Từ tháng 4 năm 2004, formaldehyde đã được Cơ quan Nghiên cứu Ung thư Quốc tế phân loại thuộc nhóm 3 (chất có khả năng gây ung thư) sang nhóm 1 (chất gây ung thư). Tuy nhiên, hiện giờ phân loại formaldehyde là chất có khả năng gây ung thư vẫn duy trì trên toàn EU.

Formaldehyde không tồn tại độc lập mà tồn tại ở dạng dung dịch hay các hợp chất khác và chỉ hóa hơi khi có điều kiện thích hợp (khi độ ẩm và nhiệt độ tăng), do đó sự tồn tại của formaldehyde ở môi trường trong nhà (do gỗ, rèm cửa, chăn gối, drap trải giường, bọc đệm ghế, thảm và các sản phẩm nhựa dùng trong nhà…) luôn cao hơn môi trường ngoài trời. Vì vậy sự nhiễm formaldehyde đối với sức khỏe con người diễn ra liên tục và có tính tích lũy.

Formaldehyde gây những triệu chứng cấp tính như kích thích gây cay niêm mạc mắt, đỏ mắt, kích thích đường hô hấp trên gây chảy mũi, viêm thanh quản, viêm đường hô hấp, hen phế quản, viêm phổ; gây viêm da tiếp xúc, viêm da dị ứng, nổi mề đay; làm chậm tiêu, rối loạn tiêu hóa, viêm loét dạ dày, viêm đại tràng… Khi tiếp xúc, hoặc ăn phải với một hàm lượng cao có thể gây tử vong (30 ml là liều lượng có thể gây ra chết người).

Ván sàn KTC Trường Thành không sử dụng hóa chất chứa độc tố formaldehyde hoặc rất ít tùy theo phân hạng ván sàn; đạt các quy định về độc tố của Nhật Bản, Châu Âu & Mỹ; người tiêu dùng có thể yên tâm hoàn toàn khi sử dụng sản phẩm ván sàn KTC Trường Thành

Common Uses

Vaccines
Formaldehyde’s use as an inactivating agent in vaccines is clearly defined and well-regulated by the FDA. Formaldehyde is used to inactivate viruses so that they don’t cause disease (e.g., polio virus used to make polio vaccine) and to detoxify bacterial toxins, such as the toxin used to make diphtheria vaccine.

Furniture, Flooring, Stairs, Cabinets and More
Glues that use formaldehyde as a building block are exceptional bonding agents. For example, formaldehyde-based resins are used to manufacture composite products used extensively in cabinetry, countertops, moldings, furniture, shelving, stair systems, flooring and many other household furnishings. These items are extremely economical due to the superior bonding properties and efficient production of formaldehyde-based glues.

Cars and Trucks
From the front to the rear bumpers, formaldehyde-based materials are key to the manufacture of automobiles and are used to make components for the transmission, electrical system, engine block, door panels, axles and brake shoes, just to name a few. It’s even used in the paint.

Inks
Formaldehyde-based materials are used to produce the dollar bills we spend every day, the documents we print from our computers and the ink used in books, magazines and newspapers.

Wrinkle-Free Clothing
In textiles, formaldehyde-based materials help bind dyes and pigments to fabrics and prevent the colors from running. These materials also help improve a fabric’s resistance to wrinkles and ease clothing care and maintenance.

Industry Uses
Formaldehyde is an important building block chemical that is vital to our economy. The wood products industry uses formaldehyde-based resins in a wide range of panel and board products, enabling efficient and economic use of wood resources. It is also important to agricultural and recreational products.

In addition, the natural gas and petroleum industries use formaldehyde-based resins in drilling operations, to increase oil and gas well yield and to improve service life. Formaldehyde-based glues help paint to adhere to surfaces, and veneer and paper overlays to adhere to particleboard.

Formaldehyde’s Unique Nature
Because of its unique and versatile nature, formaldehyde cannot easily be replaced in many consumer and industrial products. Without formaldehyde as the building block, the performance and value of a broad array of products that benefit from its chemistry would be compromised. Home buyers could face increased costs and reduced performance from home construction materials ranging from hardwood plywood, particleboard and fiberboard used in housing and furniture.

10 Air Purifying Plants For Homes & Offices

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Even in huge, busy cities, outdoor air is cleaner and preferable to indoor air. Why is that? One reason is that trees and plants are constantly cleaning the air outside. This suggests that the eco-minded homeowner or office dweller should go out and buy some plants – but which ones? With all the hype of “going green”, every plant on the market is being promoted as an air purifier! But not to worry – NASA has conducted an official study on the top 10 air purifying plants, assigning each one a score based on how well they remove chemical vapors, resist insects, and how easy they are to maintain for your home or green office space.

The Areca Palm

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(Images via Plant Directions, EnvicoGarden)

NASA Purifying Score: 8.5

The top air purifying plant as ranked by NASA’s study is the Areca palm tree. Dubbed “the most efficient air humidifier” by MetaEfficient, the Areca can be counted on to keep your home or office moist during dry times and continuously remove chemical toxins from the air. During winter time, it can literally replace the use of electric humidifiers altogether!

The Lady Palm

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(Images via Livick’s Palms, TyTy)

NASA Purifying Score: 8.5

Neck and neck with the Areca palm tree for NASA’s top-ranked air purifying plant is the Lady palm (or Rhapis excelsa.) A versatile plant, the lady can be kept in dry or humid climates (anywhere from 20-100 degrees Fahrenheit) and is fiercely resistant to most types of plant insects.

The Bamboo Palm

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(Images via Blue Moon Candles, Plant Importers)

NASA Purifying Score: 8.4

Just a notch below the top 2 air purifying palms is the Bamboo palm (or Chamaedorea seifrizii.) Featured prominently in CasaSugar.com’s “Plants That Purify” series, the Bamboo palm thrives when kept moist (but not wet) in indirect sunlight. Provided these conditions are kept stable, the Bamboo palm can be counted on to purify the indoor air of anywhere you happen to be.

The Rubber Plant

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(Image via HowStuffWorks, Great House Plants)

NASA Purifying Score: 8.0

Fourth on NASA’s scoring is the rubber plant (or Ficus robusta.) According to AvianWeb, rubber plants excel at removing chemical toxins (especially formaldehyde) from indoor air, requiring less light than many other plants and outperforming all other ficuses. A word of caution, though: rubber plant leaves can be toxic, so be mindful of that if you have pets roaming around!

The Dracaena

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(Images via Natural Surrounding, House Of Plants)

NASA Purifying Score: 7.8

The Dracaena (or Dracaena deremensis) places fifth on NASA’s ranking with a 7.8 score. Bright and radiant, the Dracaena (nicknamed “Janet Craig”) will go to work purifying the air in your home or office as soon as it is brought into the room!

English Ivy

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(Images via Overstock, OSU)

NASA Purifying Score: 7.8

If the air where you live has gotten stale and dry, English ivy (or Hedera helix) might be just the ticket! WebMD describes the effervescent plant as “a fix for allergies“, noting that 60% of airborne mold in the room vanished just 6 hours after English ivy was brought in. Ditto for 58% if airborne feces! Those with asthma, allergies, or the desire to breath cleaner, fresher air would do well to give English ivy a shot!

The Dwarf Date Palm

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(Images via Just Palm Trees, SftraJan)

NASA Purifying Score: 7.8

While it doesn’t rank as high on the purifying scale as its 3 palm cousins, make no mistake: theDate palm tree (or Phoenix roebelinii)is still a very effective and elegant-looking way to  both liven up the look of a room and lower the concentration of chemical toxins floating around in the air.

The Ficus Alii

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(Images via Hionus Greenhouses, Dave’s Garden)

NASA Purifying Score: 7.7

The ficus alii (or Ficus macleilandii) is not as potent in its toxin-removing prowess as, say, the rubber plant, but it is still a fine addition to any home or office where clean air is lacking. While they are not terrible difficult to care for, Plant Care Guru warns that gloves should be worn while handling the plant if you have latex allergies.

The Boston Fern

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(Images via Silk Plant USA, Country Living)

NASA Purifying Score: 7.5

Ninth on NASA’s ranking of top air purifying plants is the ever-popular Boston Fern (orNephrolepis exalta.) Cool and relaxing, the Boston Fern has been called the “most efficient filtering plant” by MetaEfficient.com for its time-tested ability to expel mold and toxins from indoor air. Plus, it’s sure to make any home or office more forest-like!

The Peace Lilly

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(Images via Prints of Scotland, Perry & Jaymes Florist)

NASA Purifying Score: 7.5

Rounding out NASA’s list is the peace lilly (or Spathiphyllum sp.) All that’s needed to keep and maintain this beautiful indoor air toxin killer is plenty of water and a modest amount of sunlight. Preserve these conditions at all time and you’ve got yourself an all-natural air purifier that will remain hard at work 24/7!

50 Plants that Clean the Air in your Home or Office

The Air Cleaning Experiments

Most people have heard at some point that house plants are good for your healthbecause they can clean, filter and purify the air of various toxins and pollutants. A lot of people know that this has been proved by science, although Just a few house plants that clean the air in your office and homemost people don’t know about the actual studies or which plants are best for the job.

Humans have always “known” plants did more than provide food for us or look good, but there was no real science to support this idea. It wasn’t untilThe National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) began to think about future life-support systems so humans could live on the moon and other planets that the ability of plants to filter and purify the air was exposed in full detail.

NASA proposed that if humans traveled to inhospitable planets then small biospheres would need to exist in order to support them, much like a spacecraft provides a suitable environment for its passengers as they travel through space. The issue however was that at the time spacecrafts could only be used for short periods due to the quick build up volatile organic chemicals, coming both from the people themselves as well as various equipment and machinery used on the craft.

Between 1980 and 1984 NASA proved plants in sealed test chambers that were exposed to volatile organic chemicals could remove them from the air. Including formaldehyde which is found in, or used to produce, a multitude of everyday products, from fabrics and furniture to tobacco smoke and gas stoves. Numerous scientific studies have shown it is dangerous to human health, the US National Toxicology Program in 2011 even went as far as to label it as a “human carcinogen“. In 1984 people were very excited by NASA’s findings and as a result they funded significant research looking at house plants and their air purifying abilities.

Dr Bill Wolverton was one of the scientists brought on board to help research and study the effects of houseplants on air quality in contained spaces and produced some of the most popular and commonly referenced research papers about the topic.

If you want to read more about Dr Wolverton’s work, the experiments themselves, or better understand how he formulated his ranking we have provided an Amazon link below to his book.


The List of 50 Plants

The list is ranked in order of plant effectiveness in a typical home according to Dr Wolverton. So the 1st plant in the list (Areca Palm) is the most effective and the 50th (Kalanchoe) is the least.


 


(Some of the plants are links because they have a page on OurHousePlants.com. As our site grows more will become links!).


Not found your particular house plant on that list? It’s really important to remember that Wolverton’s experiments focused on common house plants at the time. There would be no point putting in a fantastic air cleaning house plant if no one had ever heard of it, or more importantly actually wanted to have it in their homes. The studies were also done in the late 1980’s You may not find very modern house plants on Dr Wolverton's listbefore certain plants like the ZZ Plant and Yuccahad even become house plants in their own right and therefore weren’t part of the experiments either. This means a lot of modern house plants around today aren’t on the list.

However even if some of your own plants didn’t make it into the list there is no reason to see this as a negative. Almost all plants on the planet have an air cleaning ability, although it’s true some are better adapted to deal with certain toxins, pollution and putting moisture back into the air than others.

There may be certain plants ranking high on the list you really can’t stand and others which you love but are lower down. Our opinion is that you should select plants for your home or office that you actually enjoy and like. The list will simply illustrate that if you own (or spend time around) any of the plants above then there is hard scientific proof that they will clean the air in your home or office and have the official stamp that they “are good for your health” as a result.

Which plants do you have? Would you consider buying any from the list as a consequence of reading this? Do you agree with Dr Wolverton’s findings? Let us know in the comments below!